Library » Supporting Documents

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PSNERP Monitoring Framework

This document provides a monitoring framework for restoration actions in Puget Sound river deltas, beaches, barrier embayments, and coastal inlets. It is intended to guide development of site-specific monitoring plans to assess the effectiveness of actions taken to restore nearshore ecosystem processes by measuring the response of specific indicators. The framework identifies predicted outcomes and associated metrics, as well as potential uncertainties. Successful implementation of monitoring plans applying this guidance is expected to enhance understanding of physical and biological nearshore process-based restoration.

February 2013

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Monitoring Plan for the Qwuloolt Restoration Project Monitoring Plan for the Qwuloolt Restoration Project

The Qwuloolt restoration site is a former estuarine wetland in the Snohomish River system that will have tidal inundation returned via levee breach in late 2012. The long-term goal of the project is to transform the site into a self-sustaining, vegetated estuarine wetland that 1) maximizes the modern, natural ecological potential of the site; 2) minimizes adverse effects on, and adds socioeconomic value for, the surrounding community; and 3) advances the science and practice of restoration. This monitoring plan seeks to biological response to restoration and describes recommended monitoring tasks including abiotic attributes (topography and sediment dynamics, hydrology, and chemical contamination), and biota (vegetation, fishes, macroinvertebrates, and birds). Monitoring costs are estimated to be approximately $5 million over the thirteen years covered by this plan.

March 2011

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Envisioning Puget Sound Alternative Futures: PSNERP Final Report Envisioning Puget Sound Alternative Futures: PSNERP Final Report

Oregon State University completed an analysis of alternative regional future trajectories of landscape change for the Puget Sound region. This effort developed three scenarios of change: 1) Status Quo, 2) Managed Growth, and 3) Unmanaged Growth. Analyses assumed a fixed population growth rate across all three scenarios. Scenarios were generated using an alternative futures analysis model, Envision. The model generated 1) a set of spatial maps reflecting scenario-specific outcomes of land use/land cover, shoreline modifications, and population projections, and 2) a set of summary statistics describing landscape change. Analyses was completed for Puget Sound sub-basins, and aggregated to provide Sound-wide results.

For more information on this study, including more detailed results, ArcGIS coverage and other data, please visit the Envision website.

May 2010

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Habitat Monitoring Strategy for the Tidal Skagit Delta Integrating Landscape and Site-scale Perspectives Habitat Monitoring Strategy for the Tidal Skagit Delta Integrating Landscape and Site-scale Perspectives

The Skagit Chinook Recovery Plan notes that tidal rearing habitat in the Skagit Delta is a limiting factor in Chinook recovery. Consequently, the recovery plan evaluates the potential for restoring 2,700 acres of tidal marsh in the delta to recover Skagit Chinook populations, although the actual acreage necessary for Chinook recovery will depend on the quality of individual restoration project results, the landscape context and connectivity of the projects, and indirect and cumulative effects of landscape management. This report describes a habitat-centric monitoring strategy and focuses on developing a rationale for goals and questions to direct future restoration project monitoring efforts.

March 2009

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Puget Sound Future Scenarios Puget Sound Future Scenarios

The PSNERP Future Without Project Workgroup and the Urban Ecology Research Laboratory collaborated on a Scenario Planning process for the Puget Sound region. This study involved engaging more than 100 experts through a series of panel discussions and a workshop in order to develop final scenarios for the region. The scenarios in this report describe six alternative futures for the Puget Sound, ranging from economic growth and social and ecological prosperity to economic downturn and ecological collapse when critical thresholds are surpassed and regional resources become heavily strained. The report concludes with recommendations for future steps to establish links between expected future conditions and nearshore ecosystem function.

February 2009

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Adaptive Management Monitoring and Adaptive Management Guidelines for Nearshore Restoration Proposals and Projects

This report provides monitoring and adaptive management guidelines for use by those proposing restoration projects for funding of estuarine salmon restoration projects. It builds on existing overarching principles for monitoring and adaptive management, providing more specific guidelines. Among other uses, these guidelines will facilitate development of (1) criteria to rank proposals, and (2) the monitoring and adaptive management plan for the PSNERP General Investigation.

September 2007

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Historical Reconstruction, Classification and Change Analysis of Puget Sound Tidal Marshes Historical Reconstruction, Classification and Change Analysis of Puget Sound Tidal Marshes

The University of Washington’s River History Group prepared a comprehensive change analysis of Puget Sound tidal marshes, comparing historical (circa 1850-1890) data with current conditions. They used the typology developed by Hugh Shipman and the Nearshore Science Team (NST) with 20 tidal complexes they developed to inventory physical changes to 621 Puget Sound tidal marshes.

June 2005

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2004 Scale Report Spatial Patterns and Temporal Trends in Shoreline Biota in Puget Sound: Analyses of Data collected through 2004

This project has continued to examine the spatial and temporal variability of shoreline biota in southern and central Puget Sound, using the Shoreline Classification and Landscape Extrapolation (SCALE) model. The report describes a dataset which includes over 40 sites throughout the Sound, extending over 6 years at some sites. These data provide an unusual opportunity to examine spatial and temporal variation. In particular, the estuarine gradient along the north-south axis of Puget Sound allows researchers to examine whether variability depends on background diversity (since the northern sites are much more diverse than the southern), and whether temporal variability is greater in more-estuarine or more-marine environments.

June 2005

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Regional Regional Nearshore and Marine Aspects of Salmon Recovery in Puget Sound

Puget Sound Action Team staff worked with Shared Strategy staff, technical advisors, and a policy advisory group to develop this background document on nearshore and marine aspects of salmon recovery. The Puget Sound basin encompasses the entire evolutionary significant units (ESUs) for Puget Sound Chinook salmon and Hood Canal summer chum salmon, as well as a significant portion of the Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of Coastal Puget Sound bull trout. This document focuses on recovery of these three groups of fish, and most of the analyses focused on Chinook, which rear in and migrate through the nearshore and marine areas of the Puget Sound basin. While the basin includes U.S. and Canadian shorelines and waters, this analysis was restricted to the U.S. portion of the basin.

June 2005

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Distribution of Kelp in Washington State Distribution of Kelp in Washington State

Twenty-six species of kelp grow along Washington State’s shorelines, making Washington one of the sites of highest kelp diversity in the world. Kelp beds support commercial and sport fish, invertebrates, marine mammals and marine birds. Many factors, both natural and anthropogenic, affect the extent and composition of these important nearshore habitats. Studies by the Washington Department of Natural Resources Nearshore Habitat Program map the distribution of floating kelps in Washington State.

March 2005

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Using Historical Data to Estimate Changes in Floating Kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana and Macrocystis integrifolia) in Puget Sound, Washington Using Historical Data to Estimate Changes in Floating Kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana and Macrocystis integrifolia) in Puget Sound, Washington

Floating kelp beds (Nereocystis luetkeana and Macrocystis integrifolia) are important nearshore habitats that support commercial and sport fish, invertebrates, marine mammals and marine birds. Research has shown that floating kelp is affected by multiple anthropogenic and natural factors, but little is known about how floating kelp abundance in Washington State has changed over time. To investigate long-term temporal trends in floating kelp, the Washington Department of Natural Resources Nearshore Habitat Program tested for changes over time in kelp canopy area along the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the outer coast using canopy area estimates that were derived from annual low-tide aerial photographs.

March 2005

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Documented Surf Smelt and Pacific Sand Lance Spawning Beaches in San Juan County with a Summary of Protection and Restoration Priorities for Forage Fish Habitat Documented Surf Smelt and Pacific Sand Lance Spawning Beaches in San Juan County with a Summary of Protection and Restoration Priorities for Forage Fish Habitat

With the listing of many Puget Sound salmon stocks as threatened or endangered, the issue of maintaining forage fish stocks has been identified as a high priority for salmon recovery. All the important forage fishes in our region (Pacific herring, surf smelt and Pacific sand lance) depend on nearshore marine habitats for spawning and rearing. Protection of nearshore habitats utilized as spawning and rearing areas for forage fish will be required if salmon recovery is to be successful. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife conducted intertidal baitfish spawning beach survey project from 1991 through 1997, with the goal of documenting spawning beaches of the surf smelt and the Pacific sand lance throughout Puget Sound.

February 2004

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Puget Sound Submerged Vegetation Monitoring Project: 2000-2002 Monitoring Report Puget Sound Submerged Vegetation Monitoring Project: 2000-2002 Monitoring Report

The purpose of the Submerged Vegetation Monitoring Project (SVMP) is to monitor status and trends in submerged aquatic vegetation in Puget Sound. The project was part of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program. This report summarizes the first three years of research in the SVMP. It reviews project objectives, methods, and results for three years of monitoring (2000 – 2002). It presents findings with respect to project objectives, recommends changes to program methods, and discusses potential future project directions.

July 2003

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The Intertidal Biota of Puget Sound Gravel Beaches The Intertidal Biota of Puget Sound Gravel Beaches

Part 1. Spatial and Temporal Comparisons between 1999 and 2000
Part 2. Recommendations for Future Sampling

This study evaluated spatial and temporal variability of shoreline biota in the South and Central Puget Sound Basins. Intertidal pebble beaches with similar physical conditions were sampled using methods applied in similar earlier studies. The study assessed relationships between environmental conditions (e.g. wave energy, water temperature, salinity) and biota (macroalgae and invertebrates).

April 2001

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Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in WRIA 1, the Nooksack Basin Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in WRIA 1, the Nooksack Basin

This report describes the habitat limiting factors project for WRIA 1, the Nooksack Basin. It provides a consolidation of existing habitat information in a Statewide consistent format, and rates various categories of habitat conditions. The habitat categories include fish habitat access, floodplain, sediment, streambed, riparian, water quality, flow, estuarine and nearshore conditions. This report consolidates and rates salmonid habitat conditions from the freshwater to nearshore environments and presents a list of data needs and includes an overview of the most significant habitat problems in WRIA 1.

This report and other Limiting Factors reports can also be found on the Washington Conservation Commission website.

July 2002

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Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors Report for the San Juan Islands (Water Resource Inventory Area 2) Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors Report for the San Juan Islands (Water Resource Inventory Area 2)

The San Juan Islands lie largely in the central portion of the Evolutionary Significant Units for Puget Sound anadromous salmonids including ESA listed Chinook salmon. This report provides a consolidation of previously reported information. An ecosystem approach is used for assessing this information to provide a summary of current knowledge of nearshore ecosystems, identify data gaps, and develop conclusions and recommendations.

This report and other Limiting Factors reports can also be found on the Washington Conservation Commission website.

February 2002

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Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors; Water Resource Inventory Areas 3 and 4, The Skagit and Samish Basins Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in WRIA 3 and 4, The Skagit and Samish Basins

This report is the habitat limiting factors report for WRIAs 3 and 4, the Skagit and Samish Basins. It provides a consolidation of existing habitat information in a statewide consistent format, and rates various categories of habitat conditions. The habitat categories include fish habitat access, floodplain, sediment, streambed, riparian, water quality, flow, estuarine and nearshore conditions.

This report and other Limiting Factors reports can also be found on the Washington Conservation Commission website.

No date.

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Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors; Water Resource Inventory Area 5, Stillaguamish Watershed Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in WRIA 5, The Stillaguamish Watershed

This report is an assessment of the habitat factors limiting the production of salmon in the Stillaguamish watershed (WRIA 5). The Stillaguamish River drains a 1,774-km2 watershed on the west slope of the North Cascades, and is the fifth largest tributary to Puget Sound.

No date.

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Salmon Habitat Limiting Factors: Water Resource Inventory Area 6, Island County Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in WRIA 6, Island County

This report is an assessment of the habitat factors limiting salmon productivity in the freshwater streams and nearshore saltwater habitats of Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 6. This WRIA overlaps Island County, including Whidbey, Camano, Ben Sur, Smith and Strawberry Islands. Whidbey and Camano, the two largest islands, are the focus of the document. Together they cover about 538 km2 and include 123 sub-basins.

This report and other Limiting Factors reports can also be found on the Washington Conservation Commission website.

April 2000

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Salmonid Habitat Limiting Factors Analysis; Snohomish River Watershed, Water Resource Inventory Area 7 Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in WRIA 7, Snohomish River Watershed

This report is an assessment of the habitat factors limiting the production of salmon in the Snohomish watershed (WRIA 7). The Snohomish River watershed is the second largest river basin draining to Puget Sound, with a watershed area of 1,980 square miles The watershed includes three major rivers, the Skykomish, the Snoqualmie, and the Snohomish, which flow west through broad, glaciated lowland valleys and enters Puget Sound near Everett.

This report and other Limiting Factors reports can also be found on the Washington Conservation Commission website.

December 2002

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Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors Report for the Cedar–Sammamish Basin Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in WRIA 8, The Cedar–Sammamish Basin

This report is an assessment of the habitat factors limiting the production of salmon in Water Resource Inventory Area 8 (WRIA 8) WRIA 8 includes the Sammamish Watershed and the independent drainages to Puget Sound from Elliott Bay north to approximately the King County – Snohomish County line.

This report and other Limiting Factors reports can also be found on the Washington Conservation Commission website.

September 2001

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Habitat Limiting Factors and Reconnaissance Assessment Report: Green/Duwamish and Central Puget Sound Watersheds (Water Resource Inventory Area 9 and Vashon Island) Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in WRIA 9, Green/Duwamish and Central Puget Sound Watersheds and Vashon Island

This report provides a snapshot in time of the existing salmonid species and the habitat conditions that limit the natural production of salmonids in the Green/Duwamish River watershed, the independent drainages to Puget Sound from Elliott Bay south to the Puyallup watershed, the drainages on Vashon-Maury Islands, and the nearshore. This area is collectively termed WRIA 9 for the purposes of this report.

This report and other Limiting Factors reports can also be found on the Washington Conservation Commission website.

September 2001

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Salmon Habitat Limiting Factors Report for the Puyallup River Basin (Water Resource Inventory Area 10) Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in WRIA 10, The Puyallup River Basin

This report is an assessment of the habitat factors limiting the production of salmon in the Puyallup Basin, Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 10. WRIA 10 drains an area of approximately 1,065 square miles, has over 728 miles of rivers and streams which flow over 1,287 linear miles. Included in the watershed are more than a dozen cities and towns, including the state’s third largest city, Tacoma.

This report and other Limiting Factors reports can also be found on the Washington Conservation Commission website.

July 1999

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Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors: Water Resource Inventory Area 11 Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in WRIA 11, Nisqually River Basin

This report is an assessment of the habitat factors limiting the production of salmon in the Nisqually Basin, Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 11. The ancestral home of the Nisqually Indian Tribe, the Nisqually River Basin. The report provides a chronology of events that have impacted the Nisqually River Basin and describes known distribution of anadromous salmon, steelhead, and coastal cutthroat.

This report and other Limiting Factors reports can also be found on the Washington Conservation Commission website.

January 1999

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Salmon Habitat Limiting Factors Final Report: Water Resource Inventory Area 13 Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in WRIA 13, Deschutes River Basin

This report is an assessment of the habitat factors limiting the production of salmon in the Deschutes River Basin, Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 13. Data included in this report include formal habitat inventories or studies specifically directed at evaluating fish habitat, other watershed data not specifically associated with fish habitat evaluation, and personal experience and observations of the watershed experts.

This report and other Limiting Factors reports can also be found on the Washington Conservation Commission website.

July 1999

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Salmonid Habitat Limiting Factors Water Resource Inventory Area 14, Kennedy-Goldsborough Basin Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in WRIA 14, Kennedy-Goldsborough Basin

This report describes and assesses salmonid habitat in the Kennedy-Goldsborough Basin, Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 14. The region encompasses the extreme southwest terminus of Puget Sound, including a portion of Eld Inlet, the entirety of Totten Inlet, Little Skookum Inlet, Oakland Bay and Hammersley Inlet, Pickering Passage, and a portion of Case Inlet. This report examines salmonid habitat only. The report is a summary of existing knowledge from both published and unpublished literature, data, and interviews of people with technical expertise in the region.

This report and other Limiting Factors reports can also be found on the Washington Conservation Commission website.

November 2002

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Salmonid Habitat Limiting Factors Water Resource Inventory Areas 15 (West), Kitsap Basin and 14 (North), Kennedy-Goldsborough Basin Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in WRIA 15, (West), Kitsap Basin and 14 (North), Kennedy-Goldsborough Basin

This report describes and assesses riverine and nearshore salmonid habitat conditions along the east shore of Hood Canal (west Water Resource Inventory Area, WRIA 15), and the south shore of Hood Canal (north WRIA 14).  This region extends from Foulweather Bluff in the north to the town of Union in the south. This report focuses on salmonid habitat conditions only.

This report and other Limiting Factors reports can also be found on the Washington Conservation Commission website.

June 2003

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Salmon And Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors: Water Resource Inventory Area 16, Dosewallips-Skokomish Basin Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in WRIA 16, Dosewallips-Skokomish Basin

Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 16 is located within the eastern slope of the Olympic Mountains in Washington State. The WRIA extends from the Turner Creek watershed in southeast Jefferson County southward to, and including, the Skokomish watershed in northwest Mason County. The four principal watersheds, the Dosewallips, the Duckabush, the Hamma Hamma and the Skokomish, originate in the rugged terrain of the Olympic Mountains and terminate along the western shore of Hood Canal. Numerous smaller independent streams are interspersed between the larger river systems.

This report and other Limiting Factors reports can also be found on the Washington Conservation Commission website.

June 2003

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Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors: Water Resource Inventory Area 17, Quilcene-Snow Basin Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in WRIA 17, Quilcene-Snow Basin

Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 17 is located along the northeast corner of the Olympic Peninsula in western Washington State. The WRIA extends from the Marple/Jackson watershed in southeast Jefferson County northward and westward to, and including, the Johnson Creek watershed along the west side of Sequim Bay. It is bordered to the north by the Strait of Juan de Fuca, to the east by Admiralty Inlet, northern Puget Sound and Hood Canal, and to the south and west by the Olympic Mountains and associated foothills and floodplains. The majority of the WRIA 17 watersheds are small lowland drainages with headwaters in the low foothills of the Olympic Mountains. The majority of WRIA 17 watersheds provide spawning and rearing habitats for four species of salmon: coho, chum, steelhead, and searun cutthroat. The estuarine and nearshore habitats provide a critical migration corridor for juvenile salmon of all species.

This report and other Limiting Factors reports can also be found on the Washington Conservation Commission website.

November 2002

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Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors: Water Resource Inventory Area 18 Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in WRIA 18, Olympic Peninsula

WRIA 18 is located on the north Olympic Peninsula, with streams and rivers draining to the Strait of Juan de Fuca. WRIA 18 includes two large river systems (Dungeness and Elwha rivers); one medium sized river system (Morse Creek); and 14 smaller independent drainages to salt water (Bell, Gierin, Cassalery, Cooper, Meadowbrook, McDonald, Siebert, Bagley, Lees, Ennis, Peabody, Valley, Tumwater, and Dry creeks). This report attempts to compile the best available information on the current distribution and condition of salmonid stocks, for use in determining potential benefits of salmonid habitat protection and restoration efforts.

This report and other Limiting Factors reports can also be found on the Washington Conservation Commission website.

December 1999

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Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in the Western Strait of Juan De Fuca Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors in WRIA 19, Western Strait of Juan De Fuca

The western Strait of Juan de Fuca (WRIA 19) includes the area between Colville Creek on the east, to Cape Flattery on the west (Fig. B.1). The largest watersheds in this group are the Hoko, Sekiu, Pysht, Clallam, and Lyre Rivers. In addition, there are numerous small independent streams that flow northerly, draining the foothills of the Olympic Mountains into the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Major and minor factors that limit salmonid production are summarized by watershed, beginning with the larger watersheds that produce greater numbers and types of salmonids.

This report and other Limiting Factors reports can also be found on the Washington Conservation Commission website.

No date.

 
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